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Creation Date: 1792· Instrumentation: Soli: Vl Vc Ob Fa – Fl Ob 2 Hr 2Tr Pk Str · Duration: 23’ · Created as Symphony #107.
Hob.I:105 Symphony in D Major Sinfonia concertante
Originally referred to as Concertante or Sinfonia Concertante, the orchestration of this work is unique: four solo instruments (oboe, bassoon, violin, violoncello) and orchestra. Thus it is actually a quadruple concerto. Haydn wrote this piece in 1792 during his first stay in England for the second season of the Salomon Concerts. The occasion for this was likely to have been the following: Joseph Haydn already had an obligation with violinist Johann Peter Salomon’s concert enterprise. The competing enterprise to the Salomon Concerts, the Professional Concerts under the direction of violinist Wilhelm Cramer, had hired Haydn’s former pupil Ignaz Pleyel as a composer after it had failed to succeed in getting Haydn himself. In the scope of the Professional Concerts Pleyel had given a premiere performance of a Sinfonia concertante for six solo instruments and orchestra, a musical form which was very popular at this time in Paris, Pleyel’s domain of activity. Salomon, for whom the solo violin part was meant, is likely to have suggested the composition of a “counterpart” to Haydn. With this work Haydn succeeds in blending the forms of the older concerto grosso, the modern instrumental concerto and symphony. In the first movement, for example, the solo quartet emerges from the orchestra tutti; in the second movement as well the traditional split into solo parts and orchestral ritornello were circumvented to the extent that it is more like an separate piece of chamber music (with scant support of the orchestra) than an instrumental concerto. The kehraus finale is expanded into an imaginary opera scene through the recitative of the solo violins.
I. Allegro
II. Andante
III. Allegro con spirito
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