Herausgeber: Carl-Gabriel Stellan Mörner; Reihe I, Band 6; G. Henle Verlag München
Symphony No. 42 in D major
Symphony No. 42 dates from the same year (1771) as the String Quartets, op. 17 and the C minor Piano Sonata, Hob.XVI:20 (Landon 33). The opening movement bears the unusual tempo-marking 'Moderato e maestoso', which when taken seriously produces one of the longest movements Haydn ever composed. This is not merely a matter of clock-time; for example, the second group in the dominant includes, uniquely in Haydn, two 'second themes', each worked out at considerable length, with an even longer forte passage in between. The development includes not one but two 'false recapitulations', one in the tonic early on, another in the subdominant halfway through; and the recapitulation soon breaks off for a remarkable 'secondary development' based on motives from the first theme.
The slow movement bears the equally unusual tempo-marking 'Andantino e cantabile.' Heinrich Christoph Koch, the most important eighteenth-century theorist of musical form, used it as his 'demonstration' example of what we call sonata form. In the same key and meter as the slow movement of the 'Farewell' Symphony, its reflective mood is also similar, and it is even more eccentric in phrasing. (At one point Haydn went too far: in the autograph he cancelled a rhythmically obscure passage, commenting selfconsciously: “Dies war vor gar zu gelehrte Ohren” ('This was for much too learned ears'). It has been speculated that it was Prince Esterházy himself who was not amused. But the cancelled passage appears in no surviving sets of parts; most likely neither the Prince nor anyone else ever heard the version ante correcturam.
The spirited minuet is again of more than average length; the trio is an exquisite bit of refined play for the strings alone. The Finale brings yet another unusual tempo-marking, 'Scherzando e presto'. It is a set of free variations, 'excellent fooling à la Beethoven' (to quote Tovey). But it includes ravishing contrasts of instrumentation, as well as a somewhat extended minor-mode variation in the middle, and it concludes with a joking coda but whether its humor is 'high' or 'low', only the listener can decide.
Analysis of the movements
Due to the unclear time of origin of most of Haydn’s symphonies - and unlike his 13 Italian operas, where we really know the exact dates of premieres and performances - detailed and correct name lists of the orchestral musicians cannot be given. As a rough outline, his symphony works can be divided into three temporal blocks. In the first block, in the service of Count Morzin (1757-1761), in the second block, the one at the court of the Esterházys (1761-1790 but with the last symphony for the Esterház audience in 1781) and the third block, the one after Esterház (1782-1795), i.e. in Paris and London. Just for this middle block at the court of the Esterházys 1761-1781 (the last composed symphony for the Esterház audience) respectively 1790, at the end of his service at the court of Esterház we can choose Haydn’s most important musicians and “long-serving companions” and thereby extract an "all-time - all-stars orchestra".
|Flute||Franz Sigl 1761-1773|
|Flute||Zacharias Hirsch 1777-1790|
|Oboe||Michael Kapfer 1761-1769|
|Oboe||Georg Kapfer 1761-1770|
|Oboe||Anton Mayer 1782-1790|
|Oboe||Joseph Czerwenka 1784-1790|
|Bassoon||Johann Hinterberger 1761-1777|
|Bassoon||Franz Czerwenka 1784-1790|
|Bassoon||Joseph Steiner 1781-1790|
|Horn (played violin)||Franz Pauer 1770-1790|
|Horn (played violin)||Joseph Oliva 1770-1790|
|Timpani or Bassoon||Caspar Peczival 1773-1790|
|Violin||Luigi Tomasini 1761-1790|
|Violin (leader 2. Vl)||Johann Tost 1783-1788|
|Violin||Joseph Purgsteiner 1766-1790|
|Violin||Joseph Dietzl 1766-1790|
|Violin||Vito Ungricht 1777-1790|
|Violin (most Viola)||Christian Specht 1777-1790|
|Cello||Anton Kraft 1779-1790|
|Violone||Carl Schieringer 1768-1790|
33 CDs, aufgenommen 1970 bis 1974, herausgegeben 1996 Decca (Universal)
Austro-Hungarian Haydn Orchestra
33 CDs, aufgenommen 1987 bis 2001, herausgegeben 1996
Academy of Ancient Music
10 Doppel- und Triple-CDs aufgenommen und herausgegeben 1990 bis 2000 Decca (Universal)