Sinfonien um 1761-1765
Herausgeber: Ullrich Scheideler; Reihe I, Band 2; 2012, G. Henle Verlag München
Symphony No. 15 in D major
This work begins with what is arguably Haydn's most unusual opening symphony movement. It is an ABA, Adagio-Presto-Adagio (the A sections featuring concertante horns); but the first Adagio section is not a slow introduction, nor is the movement as a whole an example of 'French overture form' (as has sometimes been said). The initial Adagio section has a closed, self-sufficient ending with a perfect cadence (plus a transitional preparation for the Presto). Because it is thus rounded off, it is not an 'introduction'; more important, again unlike an introduction, it can bear repetition at the end. The Presto begins with a rising, pseudo-imitative passage that is no theme, but pure musical process. It is also unique in form: it prescribes no repetition of its two structural parts, and indeed the point at which the exposition ends and the development begins cannot be determined. These odd features must be consequences of its unique function: an opening symphonic allegro which is 'framed' by an Adagio on either side. Might this unique form have been associated with extra-musical content?
However, the cyclic form of Symphony No. 15 is somewhat familiar: four movements with 'reversed' interior movements: slow/fast/slow-minuet-slow-finale. Indeed all three remaining movements are of conventional types and observe the generic principle of contrast. The minuet, of the galant type, frames a sweeter, legato trio, in which the two violin parts alternate with the viola and cello. The Andante, as usual, is sprightly rather than solemn (thus offering the greatest possible contrast with the first-movement Adagio). And the Finale is a da capo structure with an elaborate minore section in the middle.
Analysis of the movements
Due to the unclear time of origin of most of Haydn’s symphonies - and unlike his 13 Italian operas, where we really know the exact dates of premieres and performances - detailed and correct name lists of the orchestral musicians cannot be given. As a rough outline, his symphony works can be divided into three temporal blocks. In the first block, in the service of Count Morzin (1757-1761), in the second block, the one at the court of the Esterházys (1761-1790 but with the last symphony for the Esterház audience in 1781) and the third block, the one after Esterház (1782-1795), i.e. in Paris and London. Just for this middle block at the court of the Esterházys 1761-1781 (the last composed symphony for the Esterház audience) respectively 1790, at the end of his service at the court of Esterház we can choose Haydn’s most important musicians and “long-serving companions” and thereby extract an "all-time - all-stars orchestra".
|Flute||Franz Sigl 1761-1773|
|Flute||Zacharias Hirsch 1777-1790|
|Oboe||Michael Kapfer 1761-1769|
|Oboe||Georg Kapfer 1761-1770|
|Oboe||Anton Mayer 1782-1790|
|Oboe||Joseph Czerwenka 1784-1790|
|Bassoon||Johann Hinterberger 1761-1777|
|Bassoon||Franz Czerwenka 1784-1790|
|Bassoon||Joseph Steiner 1781-1790|
|Horn (played violin)||Franz Pauer 1770-1790|
|Horn (played violin)||Joseph Oliva 1770-1790|
|Timpani or Bassoon||Caspar Peczival 1773-1790|
|Violin||Luigi Tomasini 1761-1790|
|Violin (leader 2. Vl)||Johann Tost 1783-1788|
|Violin||Joseph Purgsteiner 1766-1790|
|Violin||Joseph Dietzl 1766-1790|
|Violin||Vito Ungricht 1777-1790|
|Violin (most Viola)||Christian Specht 1777-1790|
|Cello||Anton Kraft 1779-1790|
|Violone||Carl Schieringer 1768-1790|
33 CDs, aufgenommen 1970 bis 1974, herausgegeben 1996 Decca (Universal)
Austro-Hungarian Haydn Orchestra
33 CDs, aufgenommen 1987 bis 2001, herausgegeben 1996
Academy of Ancient Music
10 Doppel- und Triple-CDs aufgenommen und herausgegeben 1990 bis 2000 Decca (Universal)
Hob.I:22 "Der Philosoph"
Hob.I:48 "Maria Theresia"
Hob.I:64 "Tempora mutantur"
Hob.I:63 "La Roxelane"
Hob.I:85 "La Reine"
Hob.I:83 "La Poule"