Sinfonien um 1761-1765
Herausgeber: Ullrich Scheideler; Reihe I, Band 2; 2012, G. Henle Verlag München
Symphony No. 3 in G major
If this imposing work is indeed earlier than 1761, as the sources imply, it offers persuasive evidence of Haydn's early mastery. The opening Allegro, 3/4, begins with a theme that is potentially in double counterpoint, the long melody notes contrasting with 'running' quavers in the bass (though the melody is heard in homophonic versions as well). Among the other contrapuntal passages in the movement, the most impressive occurs just after the beginning of the recapitulation: the long notes finally turn up in the bass, the first violins bring a new version of the running motive, and the seconds add a new syncopated countermelody.
The sonata-form Andante moderato turns to the tonic minor; its apparently simple tune develops into an intricate web of hocketing and imitative figures. The minuet may sound galant, but it is a strict canon at the octave: one of the earliest, if not the earliest, of the many symphonic minuets where Haydn injected 'learned' elements into this unassuming dance-form. The trio is pure concertante for the winds.
But the Finale, a masterpiece, trumps all this with a remarkable synthesis of fugue and sonata style, again arguably Haydn's first example of this important type of finale.
Indeed it resembles the finale of the 'Jupiter' Symphony, in that it is a sonata-form movement in elaborately contrapuntal texture, based on a 'cantus firmus'-like subject consisting of four semibreves. The first group in the tonic is a formal fugal exposition; the transition, although more 'businesslike', uses two new motives in invertible counterpoint. The second group in the dominant combines one of the latter with the original 'cantus firmus' motive, and the development increases the complexity considerably. Finally, the recapitulation features a four-part stretto on the 'cantus' until, as always, Haydn reverts to sonata style at the very end, for a spirited wind-up.
Analysis of the movements
Due to the unclear time of origin of most of Haydn’s symphonies - and unlike his 13 Italian operas, where we really know the exact dates of premieres and performances - detailed and correct name lists of the orchestral musicians cannot be given. As a rough outline, his symphony works can be divided into three temporal blocks. In the first block, in the service of Count Morzin (1757-1761), in the second block, the one at the court of the Esterházys (1761-1790 but with the last symphony for the Esterház audience in 1781) and the third block, the one after Esterház (1782-1795), i.e. in Paris and London. Just for this middle block at the court of the Esterházys 1761-1781 (the last composed symphony for the Esterház audience) respectively 1790, at the end of his service at the court of Esterház we can choose Haydn’s most important musicians and “long-serving companions” and thereby extract an "all-time - all-stars orchestra".
|Flute||Franz Sigl 1761-1773|
|Flute||Zacharias Hirsch 1777-1790|
|Oboe||Michael Kapfer 1761-1769|
|Oboe||Georg Kapfer 1761-1770|
|Oboe||Anton Mayer 1782-1790|
|Oboe||Joseph Czerwenka 1784-1790|
|Bassoon||Johann Hinterberger 1761-1777|
|Bassoon||Franz Czerwenka 1784-1790|
|Bassoon||Joseph Steiner 1781-1790|
|Horn (played violin)||Franz Pauer 1770-1790|
|Horn (played violin)||Joseph Oliva 1770-1790|
|Timpani or Bassoon||Caspar Peczival 1773-1790|
|Violin||Luigi Tomasini 1761-1790|
|Violin (leader 2. Vl)||Johann Tost 1783-1788|
|Violin||Joseph Purgsteiner 1766-1790|
|Violin||Joseph Dietzl 1766-1790|
|Violin||Vito Ungricht 1777-1790|
|Violin (most Viola)||Christian Specht 1777-1790|
|Cello||Anton Kraft 1779-1790|
|Violone||Carl Schieringer 1768-1790|
33 CDs, aufgenommen 1970 bis 1974, herausgegeben 1996 Decca (Universal)
Austro-Hungarian Haydn Orchestra
33 CDs, aufgenommen 1987 bis 2001, herausgegeben 1996
Academy of Ancient Music
10 Doppel- und Triple-CDs aufgenommen und herausgegeben 1990 bis 2000 Decca (Universal)