B flat major
Herausgeber: Carl-Gabriel Stellan Mörner; Reihe I, Band 6; G. Henle Verlag München
Symphony No. 35 in B flat major
Although by outward criteria this symphony of late 1767 is entirely unexceptional it employs a common major key, the customary four-movement sequence, and the standard orchestra of two oboes, two horns, and strings (the winds tacent in the slow movement and trio), and it has no nickname, programmatic or theatrical associations, or overt disruptions of generic conventions or stylistic decorum it exemplifies throughout the high art of which Haydn was capable in his 'entertainment' mode. The Allegro di molto is based entirely on two contrasting ideas presented at the beginning: a graceful cantabile motive in the strings (interrupted by a horn-instigated fanfare), and a powerful unison theme on a 'galloping' motive. The cantabile idea returns in numerous different contexts; as was his wont, Haydn varies it each time (note especially the eccentric continuations in the second group and, at the beginning of the recapitulation, the striking new form of that horn interruption). The development, a model of its type, is in two parts, which fragment and discuss the two themes in turn.
The sonata-form Andante exhibits the sprightly profundity mixed with eccentricity that is typical of Haydn's non-Adagio slow movements. It begins with a delicious example of tonal wit: though it is in the subdominant key of E flat, the five-bar opening phrase begins in such a way as to imply B flat (which is still resounding in our inner ear), with unexpected consequences at each successive appearance not least at the very end, where the tonal balance is at last restored. (This is perhaps Haydn's earliest large-scale example of what would soon become a familiar structural witticism: that of ending a movement with its opening phrase.) The vigorous minuet is a masterpiece of subtlety, with unexpected changes of register and phrasing (most obviously in association with the trilled motive first heard in the second measure); the most unexpected is the straightforward piano ending. The Presto finale repeats the beginning = ending ploy; the joke is all the more effective because the three opening 'ham-merstrokes' move up from the tonic to the mediant, such that the movement ends melodically 'off the tonic. The violation of convention is all the stronger because we have already heard 'the same' chords at the end of the exposition where, however, they remained on the keynote as a conventional afterbeat gesture.
Analysis of the movements
Due to the unclear time of origin of most of Haydn’s symphonies - and unlike his 13 Italian operas, where we really know the exact dates of premieres and performances - detailed and correct name lists of the orchestral musicians cannot be given. As a rough outline, his symphony works can be divided into three temporal blocks. In the first block, in the service of Count Morzin (1757-1761), in the second block, the one at the court of the Esterházys (1761-1790 but with the last symphony for the Esterház audience in 1781) and the third block, the one after Esterház (1782-1795), i.e. in Paris and London. Just for this middle block at the court of the Esterházys 1761-1781 (the last composed symphony for the Esterház audience) respectively 1790, at the end of his service at the court of Esterház we can choose Haydn’s most important musicians and “long-serving companions” and thereby extract an "all-time - all-stars orchestra".
|Flute||Franz Sigl 1761-1773|
|Flute||Zacharias Hirsch 1777-1790|
|Oboe||Michael Kapfer 1761-1769|
|Oboe||Georg Kapfer 1761-1770|
|Oboe||Anton Mayer 1782-1790|
|Oboe||Joseph Czerwenka 1784-1790|
|Bassoon||Johann Hinterberger 1761-1777|
|Bassoon||Franz Czerwenka 1784-1790|
|Bassoon||Joseph Steiner 1781-1790|
|Horn (played violin)||Franz Pauer 1770-1790|
|Horn (played violin)||Joseph Oliva 1770-1790|
|Timpani or Bassoon||Caspar Peczival 1773-1790|
|Violin||Luigi Tomasini 1761-1790|
|Violin (leader 2. Vl)||Johann Tost 1783-1788|
|Violin||Joseph Purgsteiner 1766-1790|
|Violin||Joseph Dietzl 1766-1790|
|Violin||Vito Ungricht 1777-1790|
|Violin (most Viola)||Christian Specht 1777-1790|
|Cello||Anton Kraft 1779-1790|
|Violone||Carl Schieringer 1768-1790|
33 CDs, aufgenommen 1970 bis 1974, herausgegeben 1996 Decca (Universal)
Austro-Hungarian Haydn Orchestra
33 CDs, aufgenommen 1987 bis 2001, herausgegeben 1996
Academy of Ancient Music
10 Doppel- und Triple-CDs aufgenommen und herausgegeben 1990 bis 2000 Decca (Universal)
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