Sinfonien 1773 und 1774
Herausgeber: Wolfgang Stockmeier; Reihe I, Band 7; G. Henle Verlag München
Symphony No. 57 in D major
Symphony No. 57 begins, unusually, with a slow introduction, by far the longest Haydn had composed up to that time. The ensuing Allegro, unlike the other first movements in this volume, has a quasi-perpetuum mobile texture (in quavers) and a slow harmonic rhythm. It is also very long, especially the exposition; there are not one but two contrasting piano sections, and Haydn is in no hurry (in all these respects it resembles the first movement of No. 42, also in D; see vol.6).
The theme-and-variation Adagio in 6/8 is based on one of Haydn's greatest strokes of genius. The theme comprises two halves; the first half alternates among three contrasting motives: short and pizzicato; short and legato; longer and songlike. In the second half, however, the melodic vein takes over sooner, is extended, and becomes deeper in feeling until the initial pizzicato returns as the final cadence. The remainder of the movement comprises four variations, which combine gorgeous changes in scoring, filigree figuration for the violins and, towards the end, increased chromatics and thicker textures. But as his final gesture Haydn will repeat the pizzicato cadence one last time.
The minuet, based on a jaunty turn motive, is much extended in its second half, including a distinct coda following the structural cadence. The two last bars skip up through the triad in unison, whereupon, to our surprise, they immediately recur in D minor, as the beginning of the trio but in such a way that the first four bars sound like a transition, as if the 'real' trio began in its fifth bar and were in B flat. Not until the very end does the form become clear: those first bars in D minor are the beginning of the trio.
The finale is a rollicking Prestissimo; its main theme (featuring another turn motive) seems to be derived from a seventeenth-century Austrian piece titled 'Canzona and Capriccio on the Cackling of Hens and Roosters'.4 The momentum is sustained without interruption, except when Haydn pauses briefly for his trademark fusion of wit and sentiment. About the 'affect' of the ending, however, there can be no doubt.
Analysis of the movements
Due to the unclear time of origin of most of Haydn’s symphonies - and unlike his 13 Italian operas, where we really know the exact dates of premieres and performances - detailed and correct name lists of the orchestral musicians cannot be given. As a rough outline, his symphony works can be divided into three temporal blocks. In the first block, in the service of Count Morzin (1757-1761), in the second block, the one at the court of the Esterházys (1761-1790 but with the last symphony for the Esterház audience in 1781) and the third block, the one after Esterház (1782-1795), i.e. in Paris and London. Just for this middle block at the court of the Esterházys 1761-1781 (the last composed symphony for the Esterház audience) respectively 1790, at the end of his service at the court of Esterház we can choose Haydn’s most important musicians and “long-serving companions” and thereby extract an "all-time - all-stars orchestra".
|Flute||Franz Sigl 1761-1773|
|Flute||Zacharias Hirsch 1777-1790|
|Oboe||Michael Kapfer 1761-1769|
|Oboe||Georg Kapfer 1761-1770|
|Oboe||Anton Mayer 1782-1790|
|Oboe||Joseph Czerwenka 1784-1790|
|Bassoon||Johann Hinterberger 1761-1777|
|Bassoon||Franz Czerwenka 1784-1790|
|Bassoon||Joseph Steiner 1781-1790|
|Horn (played violin)||Franz Pauer 1770-1790|
|Horn (played violin)||Joseph Oliva 1770-1790|
|Timpani or Bassoon||Caspar Peczival 1773-1790|
|Violin||Luigi Tomasini 1761-1790|
|Violin (leader 2. Vl)||Johann Tost 1783-1788|
|Violin||Joseph Purgsteiner 1766-1790|
|Violin||Joseph Dietzl 1766-1790|
|Violin||Vito Ungricht 1777-1790|
|Violin (most Viola)||Christian Specht 1777-1790|
|Cello||Anton Kraft 1779-1790|
|Violone||Carl Schieringer 1768-1790|
33 CDs, aufgenommen 1970 bis 1974, herausgegeben 1996 Decca (Universal)
Austro-Hungarian Haydn Orchestra
33 CDs, aufgenommen 1987 bis 2001, herausgegeben 1996
Academy of Ancient Music
10 Doppel- und Triple-CDs aufgenommen und herausgegeben 1990 bis 2000 Decca (Universal)